The First Olynthiac of Demosthenes

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Encyclopaedia Britannica. Goldstein, The Letters of Demosthenes , This reference article is mainly selected from the English Wikipedia with only minor checks and changes see www. See also our Disclaimer. Demosthenes On the Crown , - The orator's defense of the honour of the courts was in contrast to the improper actions of which Aeschines accused him.

Demosthenes Third Philippic , 69 - The orator warned his countrymen of the disasters Athens would suffer, if they continued to remain idle and indifferent to the challenges of their times.

Demosthenes First Olynthiac , 20 - The orator took great pains to convince his countrymen that the reform of the theoric fund was necessary to finance the city's military preparatios. The instant this court rises, each of you will walk home, one quicker, another more leisurely, not anxious, not glancing behind him, not fearing whether he is going to run up against a friend or an enemy, a big man or a little one, a strong man or a weak one, or anything of that sort.

Demosthenes: Der Staatsmann und sein Werden. The Third Option. The Third Power. The Third Twin. Recommend Documents. Your name. Close Send. Remember me Forgot password? Our partners will collect data and use cookies for ad personalization and measurement. Hence, his style harmonizes with his fervent commitment. According to Jebb, Demosthenes was a true artist who could make his art obey him.

He was also famous for his caustic wit. Besides his style, Cicero also admired other aspects of Demosthenes's works, such as the good prose rhythm, and the way he structured and arranged the material in his orations. However, the use of physical gestures wasn't an integral or developed part of rhetorical training in his day. Demosthenes relied heavily on the difference aspects of ethos, especially phronesis. When presenting himself to the Assembly, he had to depict himself as a credible and wise statesman and adviser in order to be persuasive. One tactic that Demosthenes used during his philippics was foresight.

He pleaded with his audience to predict the potential of being defeated, and to prepare. He appealed to pathos through patriotism and introducing the atrocities that would befall Athens if it was taken over by Philip. He would also slyly undermined his audience by claiming that they had been wrong to not listen before, however they could redeem themselves if they listened and acted with him presently. Demosthenes tailored his style to be very audience-specific. He took pride in not relying on attractive words but rather simple, effective prose.

He was mindful of his arrangement, he used clauses to create patterns that would make seemingly complex sentences easy for the hearer to follow. One of his most effective skills was his ability to strike a balance: his works were complex so that the audience would not be offended by any elementary language, but the most important parts were clear and easily understood.


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Demosthenes's fame has continued down the ages. Authors and scholars who flourished at Rome , such as Longinus and Caecilius , regarded his oratory as sublime.

Demosthenes - Third Philippic, The

According to Professor of Classics Cecil Wooten, Cicero ended his career by trying to imitate Demosthenes's political role. The divine power seems originally to have designed Demosthenes and Cicero upon the same plan, giving them many similarities in their natural characters, as their passion for distinction and their love of liberty in civil life, and their want of courage in dangers and war, and at the same time also to have added many accidental resemblances.

I think there can hardly be found two other orators, who, from small and obscure beginnings, became so great and mighty; who both contested with kings and tyrants; both lost their daughters, were driven out of their country, and returned with honor; who, flying from thence again, were both seized upon by their enemies, and at last ended their lives with the liberty of their countrymen.

During the Middle Ages and Renaissance , Demosthenes had a reputation for eloquence. In modern history , orators such as Henry Clay would mimic Demosthenes's technique.

In this Book

His ideas and principles survived, influencing prominent politicians and movements of our times. Hence, he constituted a source of inspiration for the authors of The Federalist Papers a series of 85 essays arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution and for the major orators of the French Revolution. However, the speeches that Demosthenes "published" might have differed from the original speeches that were actually delivered there are indications that he rewrote them with readers in mind and therefore it is possible also that he "published" different versions of any one speech, differences that could have impacted on the Alexandrian edition of his works and thus on all subsequent editions down to the present day.

The Alexandrian texts were incorporated into the body of classical Greek literature that was preserved, catalogued and studied by scholars of the Hellenistic period. Friedrich Blass , a German classical scholar, believes that nine more speeches were recorded by the orator, but they are not extant. Some of the speeches that comprise the "Demosthenic corpus" are known to have been written by other authors, though scholars differ over which speeches these are.

In addition to the speeches, there are fifty-six prologues openings of speeches. They were collected for the Library of Alexandria by Callimachus , who believed them genuine. According to James J. Murphy, Professor emeritus of Rhetoric and Communication at the University of California, Davis , his lifelong career as a logographer continued even during his most intense involvement in the political struggle against Philip.

According to Libanius, Eubulus passed a law making it difficult to divert public funds, including "theorika," for minor military operations. Burke argues that, if this was indeed a law of Eubulus, it would have served "as a means to check a too-aggressive and expensive interventionism [ Thus Burke believes that in the Eubulan period, the Theoric Fund was used not only as allowances for public entertainment but also for a variety of projects, including public works.

MacDowell, Demosthenes regarded as Greeks only those who had reached the cultural standards of south Greece and he did not take into consideration ethnological criteria. Plutarch argued the Demosthenes accepted the bribe out of fear of Meidias's power. Weil agreed that Demosthenes never delivered Against Meidias , but believed that he dropped the charges for political reasons.

Kenneth Dover also endorsed Aeschines's account, and argued that, although the speech was never delivered in court, Demosthenes put into circulation an attack on Meidias. Dover's arguments were refuted by Edward M. Harris, who concluded that, although we cannot be sure about the outcome of the trial, the speech was delivered in court, and that Aeschines story was a lie.

Aeschines and Dinarchus also maintained that when the Arcadians offered their services for ten talents, Demosthenes refused to furnish the money to the Thebans, who were conducting the negotiations, and so the Arcadians sold out to the Macedonians. He also narrates the following story: Shortly after Harpalus ran away from Athens, he was put to death by the servants who were attending him, though some assert that he was assassinated.


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  8. The steward of his money fled to Rhodes, and was arrested by a Macedonian officer, Philoxenus. Philoxenus proceeded to examine the slave, "until he learned everything about such as had allowed themselves to accept a bribe from Harpalus.

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    The Olynthiacs and the Phillippics by Demosthenes - Book - Read Online

    From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigation , search. For other historical and fictional personages named Demosthenes, see Demosthenes disambiguation. Bust of Demosthenes Louvre , Paris , France. For more details on this topic, see Against Meidias.

    For more details on this topic, see Peace of Philocrates.

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    For more details on this topic, see Battle of Chaeronea BC. See also: On the Crown. For more details on this topic, see Harpalus. For more details on this topic, see Works of Demosthenes. MacDowell, Demosthenes the Orator , ch. MacDowell, Demosthenes the Orator, ch. Encyclopaedia The Helios. Nietzsche, Lessons of Rhetoric , —; K. Harris, "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias", —; J. Vince, Demosthenes Orations , I, Intro. Badian, "The Road to Prominence", 29—30; K. Habinek, Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory , 21; D. Vince, p. Tsatsos, Demosthenes , ; H. Tsatsos, Demosthenes , —; H.

    Tsatsos, Demosthenes, ; "Demosthenes". Droysen, History of Alexander the Great , —; K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes , —; D.

    Demosthenes Olynthiac A Lines 1-14

    Whitehead, Hypereides , —; I. Carey, Aeschines , 12—14; K. Sowerby, "Thomas Wilson's Demosthenes", 46—47, 51—55; "Demosthenes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gibson, Interpreting a Classic, 1; K. Cohen, The Athenian Nation , 76; "Demosthenes". Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 84; H. Tsatsos, Demosthenes , 90; H. Harris, "Demosthenes' Speech against Meidias", passim ; H. Apostolidis, note in J. Droysen, History of Alexander the Great , —; J. Engels, Hypereides , —; I. Apostolidis, note with further references , in J.